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An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8(5 Suppl): 208–213.

Narendra Singh

International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Gomtinagar, Lucknow – 226010, INDIA

Mohit Bhalla

International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Gomtinagar, Lucknow – 226010, INDIA

Prashanti de Jager

*Ayurvedic Scholar at the International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, India

Marilena Gilca

**Biochemistry Department, Faculty of General Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Bucharest, Romania, Visiting Scientist at the International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, India

International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Gomtinagar, Lucknow – 226010, INDIA

*Ayurvedic Scholar at the International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, India

**Biochemistry Department, Faculty of General Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Bucharest, Romania, Visiting Scientist at the International Institute of Herbal Medicine (IIHM), Lucknow, India

Copyright © Afr. J. Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2011This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.


Withania somnifera (Ashawagandha) is very revered herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana (tonic). It is used for various kinds of disease processes and specially as a nervine tonic. Considering these facts many scientific studies were carried out and its adaptogenic / anti-stress activities were studied in detail. In experimental models it increases the stamina of rats during swimming endurance test and prevented adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produce by swimming stress. Pretreatment with Withania somnifera (WS) showed significance protection against stress induced gastric ulcers. WS have anti-tumor effect on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell carcinoma. It was also found effective against urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice. In some cases of uterine fibroids, dermatosarcoma, long term treatment with WS controlled the condition. It has a Cognition Promoting Effect and was useful in children with memory deficit and in old age people loss of memory. It was also found useful in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzeimer’s diseases. It has GABA mimetic effect and was shown to promote formation of dendrites. It has anxiolytic effect and improves energy levels and mitochondrial health. It is an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent and was found useful in clinical cases of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis. Large scale studies are needed to prove its clinical efficacy in stress related disorders, neuronal disorders and cancers.

Keywords: Withania somnifera, rejuvenator, adaptogen / anti-stress, anti-tumor, neuroregenerative, anti-arthritic


Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, fam. Solanaceae) is commonly known as “Indian Winter cherry” or “Indian Ginseng”. It is one of the most important herb of Ayurveda (the traditional system of medicine in India) used for millennia as a Rasayana for its wide ranging health benefits. Rasayana is described as an herbal or metallic preparation that promotes a youthful state of physical and mental health and expands happiness. These types of remedies are given to small children as tonics, and are also taken by the middle-aged and elderly to increase longevity. Among the ayurvedic Rasayana herbs, Ashwagandha holds the most prominent place. It is known as “Sattvic Kapha Rasayana” Herb (Changhadi, 1938). Most of the Rasayana herbs are adaptogen / anti-stress agents.

Ashwagandha is commonly available as a churna, a fine sieved powder that can be mixed with water, ghee (clarified butter) or honey. It enhances the function of the brain and nervous system and improves the memory. It improves the function of the reproductive system promoting a healthy sexual and reproductive balance. Being a powerful adaptogen, it enhances the body’s resilience to stress. Ashwagandha improves the body’s defense against disease by improving the cell-mediated immunity. It also possesses potent antioxidant properties that help protect against cellular damage caused by free radicals.

Chemical Composition

iThe biologically active chemical constituents of Withania somnifera (WS) include alkaloids (isopelletierine, anaferine, cuseohygrine, anahygrine, etc.), steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins) and saponins (Mishra, 2000 et al., 2000). Sitoindosides and acylsterylglucosides in Ashwagandha are anti-stress agents. Active principles of Ashwagandha, for instance the sitoindosides VII-X and Withaferin-A, have been shown to have significant anti-stress activity against acute models of experimental stress (Bhattacharya et al., 1987). Many of its constituents support immunomodulatory actions (Ghosal et al., 1989). The aerial parts of Withania somnifera yielded 5-dehydroxy withanolide-R and withasomniferin-A (Atta-ur-Rahman et al., 1991).

Classical Uses of Ashwagandha

Ayurveda, the traditional system of medicine practiced in India can be traced back to 6000 BC (Charak Samhita, 1949). For most of these 6000 years Ashwagandha has been used as a Rasayana. The root of Ashwagandha is regarded as tonic, aphrodisiac, narcotic, diuretic, anthelmintic, astringent, thermogenic and stimulant. The root smells like horse (“ashwa”), that is why it is called Ashwagandha (on consuming it gives the power of a horse). It is commonly used in emaciation of children (when given with milk, it is the best tonic for children), debility from old age, rheumatism, vitiated conditions of vata, leucoderma, constipation, insomnia, nervous breakdown, goiter etc. (Sharma, 1999). The paste formed when roots are crushed with water is applied to reduce the inflammation at the joints (Bhandari, 1970). It is also locally applied in carbuncles, ulcers and painful swellings (Kritikar and Basu, 1935). The root in combination with other drugs is prescribed for snake venom as well as in scorpion-sting. It also helps in leucorrhoea, boils, pimples, flatulent colic, worms and piles (Misra, 2004). The Nagori Ashwagandha is the supreme among all Ashwagandha varieties. Maximum benefit appears when fresh Ashwagandha powder is used (Singh, 1983).

The leaves are bitter and are recommended in fever, painful swellings. The flowers are astringent, depurative, diuretic and aphrodisiac. The seeds are anthelmintic and combined with astringent and rock salt remove white spots from the cornea. Ashwagandharishta prepared from it is used in hysteria, anxiety, memory loss, syncope, etc. It also acts as a stimulant and increases the sperm count (Sharma, 1938).

Scientific Studies on Ashwagandha Adaptogenic / Anti-stress effect

Aswagandha is compared well with Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian Ginseng) and Panax Ginseng (Chinese / Korean Ginseng) in its adaptogenic properties, and hence it is popularly known as Indian Ginseng (Singh et al., 2010). The extensive studies on the biological model of animals for the adaptogenic / anti-stress properties of Ashwagandha (Abbas and Singh, 2006; Kalsi et al., 1987; Singh et al., 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982, 1993a, 1993b, 2003; (Singh, 1995a, 1995b, 2006, 2008) have shown it to be effective in increasing the stamina (physical endurance) and preventing stress induced gastric ulcer, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and mortality. Ashawagandha have similar anti-stress activity in rats (Archana & Namasivayam, 1999). An aqueous suspension of Ashwagandha root was used at 100 mg/kg/oral dosage. The results indicate a significant increase in the plasma corticosterone level, phagocytic index and avidity index in rats subjected to cold swimming stress. In the rats pretreated with the drug, these parameters were near control values and an increase in the swimming time was observed. These results indicate that Withania somnifera used in the crude form is a potent anti-stress agent. The results of above studies lend support to the hypothesis of tonics, vitalizers and rejuvenators of Ayurveda which indicate clinical use of Withania somnifera in the prevention and treatment of many stress induced diseases like arteriosclerosis, premature ageing, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension and malignancy (Singh, 1986, 2005; Singh and Misra, 1993).

i. Effect on swimming performance

Ashwagandha was shown to increase swimming performance in rats as judged by increase in swimming time during physical endurance test. Ashwagandha’s antistress properties have been investigated in all these studies using adult rats were carried out by swimming endurance stress test. Ashwagandha treated animals showed a significant increase in the duration of swimming time as compared to control. The control group of mice swam for a mean time of 385 minutes, whereas the drug-treated animals continued to swim for a mean duration of 740 minutes. Thus, the swimming time was approximately doubled after Withania somnifera (WS) treatment.

ii. Effect on cortisol and ascorbic acid contents of adrenals

The cortisol content of adrenals was reduced significantly in animals subjected to 5 h constant swimming as compared to non-swimmer group. Pretreatment with WS prevented reduction of the cortisol content of adrenals. The ascorbic acid content was also reduced significantly after 5 h of swimming as compared to the animal of non-swimmer group. Pretreatment with WS prevent reduction in ascorbic acid content which occurs after swimming stress. Thus, Withania somnifera treatment prevents, decrease of adrenal cortisol and ascorbic acid which occurs due to swimming stress.

iii. Anti-ulcerogenic effect

Ashwagandha was found to be useful in the prevention of stress-induced ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract (Singh et al. 1982). It showed significant protection against 18 h immobilization, cold + immobilization (4h) and aspirin induced gastric ulcers and lowered the mean ulcer index in rats.

iv. Effect on leucocytosis

Ashwagandha given to a group of mice with milk injection produced reduction in leucocytosis.

v. Anabolic effects:

There was a significant increase in the body weights of the Ashwagandha treated group as compared to control for a period of 3 months in rats.

Acute toxicity studies

In acute toxicity studies the LD50 of Withania somnifera was found to be 1750 mg (p.o.) in albino mice.

Anti-tumor effect Effect on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells carcinoma

Withania roots caused the inhibitory effect of about 49% on colony forming efficiency of CHO cells. It inhibits the cell growth and prevents the cell attachment. It induced long term growth inhibition of CHO cells which was dependent on the cell density and duration of Ashwagandha exposure (Sumantran et al., 2007). This knowledge in turn will assist oncologists who plan to use the Ashwagandha as ‘synergizers with conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Effect on Urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice and other studies:

Ashwagandha was found to be very useful in experimental carcinogenesis in the crude form. It prevented urethane-induced lung-adenomas in mice. The other effects of urethane like leucopoenia were also prevented. Urethane, which is a chemical stressor, causes variety of ill effects, all of which were prevented by Withania. The drug can be used as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Besides having an anti-cancer effect it will also reduce the side effects of anti-cancer agents, which invariably reduce immunity and quality of life. WS also acts as an immunomodulator and hence can enhance life span of cancer patients, where lowered immunity states of the patient are the cause of concern. Our results suggest its use as anti-tumor (Singh et al. 1979, 1981, 1986, 2010) and immunomodulator agent (Dixit et al., 1995).

The research and studies of Ashwagandha’s activities in the inhibition and reduction of tumour growth have shown encouraging evidence that this remarkable herb may prove to be extremely effective in the treatment of tumor type diseases including cancer (Singh and Gilca, 2010). It also improves the white cell count (WBC) and function, which are depleted in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Ashwagandha in the treatment of fibroid tumors of the uterus showed reduction of uterine bleeding tendencies and disappearance of fibroids after long treatment (Abbas et al. 2004, 2005).

Effect on Central Nervous System Cognition Promoting Effect

Ashwagandha is a well known Ayurvedic Rasayana, and belongs to a sub-group of Rasayanas known as Medhyarasayanas. Medhya typically refers to the mind and mental/intellectual capacity. Thus, Medhya Rasayana like Ashwagandha, is used to promote intellect and memory. The cognition-promoting effect of Medhya Rasayanas is best seen in children with memory deficits, or when memory is compromised following head injury, or a prolonged illness and in old age (Singh and Udupa., 1993).

Effect on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss (Dickon and Vicker, 2001) are considered the major causes of cognitive impairment, as based on the results of neuropathological post-mortem studies of the brain (Dekosky & Scheff, 1990). In the brains of patients suffering from other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, the atrophy of neurites has also been observed as a significant part of the etiology. There are dozens of studies that show that Ashwagandha slows, stops, reverses or removes neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. Therefore Ashwagandha can be used to treat Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and other neurodegenerative diseases at any stage of the disease, even before a person has been diagnosed and is still in the state of mild forgetfulness, etc. Glycowithanolides withaferin- A and sitoindosides VII–X isolated from the roots of Ashwagandha significantly reversed ibotenic acid induced cognitive defects in Alzheimer’s disease model (Bhattacharya et al., 1995).

Ashwagandha has been described as a nervine tonic (Singh et al., 1988, 1993) in Ayurveda and that is why it is a common ingredient of Ayurvedic tonic. Tonics, rejuvenators and vitalizers of Ayurveda appear to allay disease and induce immunity (Singh et al., 1986) and longevity in the users.

Pretreatment with Ashwaganda extract was found to prevent all the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, catecholamine content, dopaminergic D2 receptor binding and tyrosine hydroxylase expression induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats (an animal model of Parkinson’s disease) in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results suggest that Ashwagandha may be helpful in protecting the neuronal injury in Parkinson’s disease (Nagashyana et al., 2000).

GABA-mimetic effect on neurodegeneration and neuroregenerative potential

Behavioral experiments have lent support to the GABA-mimetic activity of Ashwagandha root extract. GABAergic neurodegeneration due to neuroleptic-induced excitotoxicity and oxidative stress is one of the etiopathological mechanisms in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (Gunne et al., 1993) and GABA agonists are shown to be effective in ameliorating the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. The beneficial effect of Ashwagandha root extract might be due to its GABA mimetic activity. Ashwagandha, its constituents and the metabolites of its constituents promote the growth of nerves after taking it for 7 days.

An intriguing study demonstrated that chronic oral administration of withanoside IV attenuated the axonal, dendritic and synaptic losses and memory deficits induced by amyloid peptide Aβ(25–35) in mice (Kuboyama et al, 2006). After oral administration in mice, withanoside IV was metabolized into sominone, which induced marked recovery in neurites and synapses and also enhanced axonal and dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis. These effects were maintained for at least 7 days after discontinuing withanoside IV administration. These data suggest that withanoside IV, and its metabolite, sominone, may have clinical usefulness as antidementia drugs.

Another team found that the methanol extract of Ashwagandha (5 mg/ml) significantly increased the percentage of cells with neurites in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The effect of the extract was dose-and time-dependent. mRNA levels of the dendritic markers MAP2 and PSD-95 by RT-PCR were found to be markedly increased by treatment with the extract. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the specific expression of MAP2 in neurites extended by the extract. These results suggest that the methanol extract of Ashwagandha promotes the formation of dendrites (Kulkarni et al., 1993).

Anxiolytic effect:

Ashwagandha induced a calming anxiolytic effect that was comparable to the drug Lorazepam in all three standard Anxiety tests: the elevated plus-maze, social interaction and the feeding latency in an unfamiliar environment. Further, both Ashwagandha and Lorazepam, reduced rat brain levels of tribulin, an endocoid marker of clinical anxiety, when the levels were increased following administration of the anxiogenic agent, pentylenetetrazole.

Ashwagandha also exhibited an antidepressant effect, comparable with that induced by imipramine, in two standard tests, the forced swim-induced ‘behavioral despair’ and ‘learned helplessness’ tests. The investigations support the use of Ashwagandha as a mood stabilizer in clinical conditions of anxiety and depression. (Abdel-Magied et al., 2001)

Effect on Energy levels and Mitochondrial Health:

The effect of Ashwagandha on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. Ashwagandha is shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of ribosome -35S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg2+ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by Ashwagandha. Ashwagandha also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue (Begum & Sadique, 1987).

Anti-inflammatory effect due to Withaferin:

Withaferin A and 3-b-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrowithanolide F isolated from Withania somnifera show promising antibacterial, antitumoral, immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties (Budhiraja and Sudhir, 1987).

Anti-arthritic effect:

Ashwagandha is an analgesic that soothes nervous system from pain response (Twajj et al., 1989). The powerful anti-arthritic properties (Singh et al. 1984, 1986) of Ashwagandha are now widely accepted and documented; it is furthermore found to be effective as antipyretic as well as analgesic also.

Ashwagandha (1000 mg/kg/oral) produced significant analgesic activity for a rat experiencing heat analgesia induced by hot plate method. The peak analgesic effect of Ashwagandha was recorded as 78.03 percent at 2nd hour of administration. The involvement of pain mediators; prostaglandin and 5-hydroxytryptamine in analgesic activity of Ashwagandha was studied by pretreatment with paracetamol (100 mg/kg, ip) and cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg, ip). The analgesic activity of Ashwagandha was potentiated significantly by cyproheptadine, however, paracetamol failed to exhibit any significant change in its activity, suggesting the involvement of serotonin, but not prostaglandins in the analgesic activity of Ashwagandha (Mazen et al., 1990).

Discussion and Conclusion

The available scientific data support the conclusion that Ashwagandha is a real potent regenerative tonic (Rasayana of Ayurveda), due to its multiple pharmacological actions like anti-stress, neuroprotective, antitumor, anti-arthritic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory etc. It is useful for different types of diseases like Parkinson, dementia, memory loss, stress induced diseases, malignoma and others.

Ashwagandha is used as a household remedy by Indians, who consider it as the best tonic for old people and children, and as aphrodisiac by young people. It is one of the best nervine tonics of Ayurveda, the most ancient system of Medical Sciences. Our clinical experience showed that besides the enumerated neurological conditions, brain strokes causing paralysis and neuronal deficit also improve in the long term treatment with Ashwagandha. We are also using it in all forms of cancer including prostate and lung cancers, especially in last stages, giving the patients lot of health benefits. We have some cases of lung cancer who have refused modern therapy and recovered clinically and radiologically with our therapy of Ashwagandha. (Singh N., 2010- unpublished data). In a recent seminar (Singh, 2005) on essential drug concept, it was projected as one of the six essential medicinal herbs.

Thus, the above findings clearly indicate that the traditional use of Ashwagandha has a logical and scientific basis. Large scale clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, specially in stress related diseases, neuronal disorders and cancers.


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Ashwagandha, Vanaushadhi Nidharsika (Ayurvedic Pharmacopia) UP Sansthan: 1983. pp. 30–31. [Google Scholar]51. Singh SP, Singh DR, Gupta ML, Singh N, Kohli RP. An experimental evaluation of anti-tumor activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and “Geriforte” XI Annual Conf IPS Ind Jour Pharmacol. 1979;11(1):65. [Google Scholar]52. Sumanran VN, Boddul S, Madhuri D. Differential growth inhibitory effects of Withania somnifera root on CHO cells. Phytother Res. 2007;21:1–4. [Google Scholar]53. Twaij HAA, Elisha EE, Khalid RM. Analgesic studies on some Iraqi medicinal plants. International Journal of Crude Research. 1989;27:109–112. [Google Scholar]


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The 10 Best At-Home Waxes for a Soft and Smooth Bikini Line

Our editors independently research, test, and recommend the best products, and articles are reviewed by healthcare professionals for medical accuracy. You can learn more about our review process here. We may receive commissions on purchases made from our chosen links.

If and how and when you choose to groom your pubic hair is completely your call. But if you’ve realized that bikini hair removal is your jam, you likely may also be on board the bikini wax train. The results are notably longer lasting than what you’d get with shaving, not to mention that waxing also largely minimizes the risk of razor burn.

For some, having a stranger (read: professional waxer) do the hard work is no big thing. But there’s no way around it—a bikini wax is never going to be comfortable or pleasant, and for many people, that added ‘now a stranger is involved’ factor can only make things more awkward. Enter at-home waxes. Sure, there’s a little bit of a learning curve and a certain skill set involved, but once you get the hang of it, going the DIY route is an easy, affordable alternative. The caveat: Be sure to seek out a wax specially made for this sensitive area and read (and follow) the directions carefully, since not all waxes are created equal. For instance, some waxes melt more easily and evenly than do others—getting the perfect consistency and temperature in a home microwave can be a bit of an art. And for those nervous about self-applying hot goop, wax strips that melt in your hand are a less intimidating way to try.

Rhea Souhleris Grous, an aesthetics specialist, admits it’s difficult on your own at first. “Having waxed both clients and me, I have to acknowledge that inflicting pain on oneself can be difficult. It also presents a challenge in finding the right angle on intimate parts of your body,” she laments. Grous advises, “It is important to pull the wax strip against the hair growth, making it quite difficult to reach tough areas. I would recommend at-home waxing mainly for people with minimal hair in small, easy-to-reach areas. Also, people with very curly or thick hair should avoid waxing themselves, to prevent ingrown hair, because the follicle can break during the pulling process (especially if you pause).”

Meet the Expert

Rhea Souhleris Grous is the founder of La Suite Skincare at Union Square Dermatology and an aesthetics specialist with more than two decades of experience. The focus of La Suite Skincare at Union Square Laser Dermatology is to marry ongoing maintenance, in the form of advanced facials, chemical peels, micro-needling, electroporation, oxygen therapy, and other services with treatments from board-certified dermatologists.

That said, it can be done—and if you put in the time and practice, it’ll pay off. Especially with the right at-home products. No matter whether you’re looking to completely bare it all or just want to clean up your bikini line, these top waxes for hair removal will help you get the job done.

Read on for the best bikini line waxes.

Final Verdict

Our number one pick is the GiGi Student Starter Wax Kit. The professional-quality wax and included warmer allow you to give yourself a truly spa-level treatment right at home. If you’re looking for something a little more straightforward, try Nair Ready-Strips for Face & Bikini. You don’t even have to warm them—just peel, stick, pull back, and you’re done.

What To Look For in At-Home Pubic Hair Wax


Completely pain-free pubic hair waxes don’t really exist, but some formulas are more gentle than others. This means the wax is less likely to be irritating or cause a reaction, and it should stick to your hairs, not your skin. Hard waxes, like beeswax and paraffin, tend to be better at wrapping around each strand, making coarse hairs in your bikini area easier to remove.

Look for an option with soothing ingredients like azulene oil, chamomile, and honey. You can also find hypoallergenic waxes without any fragrances or artificial colors. Additionally, formulas with vitamin E and almond oil can help soothe your skin afterward.


Pubic hair wax needs to be liquified (or otherwise soft) in order to effectively grasp your hair. You want it to melt easily without getting too hot or rehardening too quickly. Some waxes come with a warmer, which makes it easy to melt it to the perfect consistency while keeping it warm as you get to work.

Then there’s microwavable wax, which is generally easy to use, as long as you figure out the sweet spot for timing it. (All microwaves are different.) Some microwavable waxes melt at lower temperatures than others, reducing the risk of burning your skin and making the overall process quicker.

Other options can be melted on the stovetop, allowing you to keep an eye on the temperature and consistency. Some ready-made strips are designed to melt in the warmth of your hands, and others are soft enough that they don’t need to be warmed at all. Non-melting waxes are convenient, though they don’t always offer as much gusto as their meltable counterparts.

Strips vs. No Strips

Some pubic hair waxes are supposed to be pulled off without strips, some are intended to be used with strips, and some have a ready-made peel-and-stick design. Selecting a kit with or without strips is mostly a matter of preference.

Stripless options are typically applied with either a plastic or wooden applicator stick or spatula. The wax formulas are usually thick enough that you can get a good grip on the edge and pull it off, just like you would with a strip. This type of bikini wax tends to be the most effective on coarse hairs, as it allows you to brush it in the direction of the growth and then remove it in the reverse direction. This is also true for strip waxes that aren’t pre-made. Having said that, ready-made strips are certainly convenient, especially for touch-ups.


  • The general process of waxing pubic hair involves melting the wax, applying it in the direction of your hair growth, and placing a cloth strip on top of the wax (pressing firmly so it sticks). Once it hardens, remove the wax by lifting the edge of the strip and pulling it back quickly in the opposite direction of your hair growth.

  • Generally speaking, you want the hair to be at least ¼ inch long before waxing it to make the process easier. However, if you’ve got a special event or vacation coming up and can’t wait for it to grow out, you might be successful with ⅛ inches of growth.

  • Waxing every three to four weeks is usually ideal for pubic hair. If your hair grows quickly or you spend a lot of time in a swimsuit, you might benefit from a bi-weekly schedule.

Why Trust Byrdie

Byrdie contributor Melanie Rud has over a decade of experience in the beauty industry, writing for some of the biggest magazines and websites out there.  While she loves a good bikini wax, she doesn’t love to take the DIY route, so she relied on expert input, lots of product reviews, and input from family and friends when writing this article.


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Google Business Profile – Get Listed on Google

Show what you offer, from products to services

Whether you’re a restaurant, store, or service provider, your profile helps customers do business with you easily and directly with product inventory, ordering, bookings, quotes, and more.

Manage now


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The Art of Shaving Canada

Get 15% off your first purchase when you sign up for the latest on sales, promotions and new product launches. By signing up, I agree to receive emails from The Art of Shaving and other trusted P&G brands and programs. Click to read P&G Terms & Conditions and P&G Privacy Policy.


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Mother Sparsh: India’s No.1 Certified Personal & Baby Care Brand

Why choose Mother Sparsh?

When it comes to choosing the best baby skin care products brand for your baby, moms want nothing but the best! As a new mom, it’s a tough task to pick the right baby care products & what’s better than trusting the recommendations of dermatologists across India! Ensuring that you get honest solutions from an honest brand Mother Sparsh baby care uses nature’s therapeutic powers & botanical ingredients to give your baby Natural Skin care products & best organic baby skin care products in india. It’s important to properly care for your baby by using the best baby products in india that will protect and moisturize their evolving skin which is why Mother Sparsh offers the first ever range of plant powered baby care products such as best baby soap, best baby cream in india, baby shampoo for hair etc. in an endeavour to offer the restorative balance of nature & innovation in our baby care & adapt with the changing needs of mothers to bring nature in its most unadulterated form. Ensuring that your trust is safe with us, we introduced India’s first Plant Powered baby care range to give your little ones the purest start in life. Give your baby the gentlest start in with our plant based baby skin care for baby’s comfort, comprising our Plant Powered Natural Baby Lotion, Baby Shampoo & Baby Wash. Our Natural Baby Shampoo is curated with gentle botanical extracts, they contain no harmful toxins & are less foaming due to plant based cleansing agents. Our Baby Shampoo is crafted to soothe a baby’s delicate scalp while our baby soap, baby wash, baby lotion nourishes baby’s skin & are the best organic baby skin care products in india. Explore more of our baby care kit & baby care products list encompassing Plant powered & ayurvedic baby care products from natural & safe baby care products brands. Our newborn baby gift set includes baby massage oil for fairness, baby bath products , baby moisturizing cream ,best baby lotion in India & much more! For generations, the restorative properties of Ayurveda baby care have helped restore, nourish and soothe baby’s skin & have been known to nurture your baby’s skin from day one. Explore our carefully selected Ayurvedic best baby products in india which are gentle & safe for baby’s sensitive & delicate skin, our baby care kits & new born baby kit set comprises of our bestselling products for baby care & wellness such as colic relief & mosquito cream for baby , natural & safe insect repellants, Baby oil with ayurvedic ingredients like rosehip, avocado olive oil for baby massage . Encasing of pure botanical extracts & dermatologically recommended best baby skin care products & baby bath products like baby shampoo, baby oil & many more best baby care products in India make for a perfect baby gift hamper, newborn baby gift set & baby gift set to give some love to the ones you love. Our wellness & natural products for mom’s care are rooted in nature and crafted with carefully selected mothers & moms to be. Mother care products curated with exclusive products for lightening stretch marks & hair care products for improved hair health. Our Hair care collection of rich ayurvedic hair care products also comes with an exclusive detailed descriptive card for empowering you through your hair care routine & how to take care of hair. Our thoughtful assortment of hair care products also includes our one of it’s kind product, our hair lep which is a well preserved ayurvedic home remedy as opposed to synthetic gel/creme based hair masks & hair serum which are prefabricated & may contain chemically formulated ingredients for short-lived results. Mother Sparsh hair care kits & skin care kits also make for a perfect gifting option for any occasion! Modern based hair care solutions like hair serums, treatments are crafted with a composition that can’t be altered according to scalp needs like our Hair Lep which is a blend of potent ayurvedic herbs & ingredients which targets hair health from the roots & enhances hair health from within. Pre-made masks & hair serums may contain harmful preservatives for prolonged shelf life which may further damage the hair hair health. Our 30 Herbs Hair Oil is hair care oil crafted with a decoction of over 30 herbs & oils which enriches the scalp which it’s nutritive benefits. Our Ayurvedic skincare products are a centuries-old cultural beauty ritual formulated with the most efficacious Ayurvedic recipes. We have encapsulated the essence of nature in our plant powered natural skin care laced with precious botanical extracts. Mother Sparsh skin care combos come with everything you need whether it’s intense hydration, treating hyperpigmentation & dark spots & a radiant complexion!


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Buy Ayurvedic Products Online | Free Shipping

“I can honestly say, as a professional expert, as well through personal experience, that all Dhathri Ayurveda products offer either preventive, curative or overall feeling of well-being and nourishment. Each product is carefully designed to not only provide solution to a particular problem but it also enhances and nurtures your overall persona.”


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Saffron magic: I used the most expensive spice on my skin and it worked wonders!

Saffron, the most expensive spice in the world, can work its magic on your skin. Read on to find ways to incorporate it in your skincare regime.

We all have heard of saffron as a permanent ingredient in skincare creams and face packs. With its reputation as one of the most expensive spices in the world, saffron is susceptible to adulteration and is difficult to source due to its limited production. The flower’s dried stigma is widely used in the culinary world for its exotic fragrance and to give bright warm colour to the food. While saffron is good for coughs, colds and stomach troubles, it is a powerful glow booster for the skin. Hearing about its miraculous benefits for skin, we gave it a try ourselves and it turned out to be the best ‘investment’ (considering the whopping cost) for our beauty regime.

Due to its richness in antioxidants, saffron can up your skincare routine.

Weighing in on the skincare benefits of saffron, Rubaina Adhikari, dietitian and lifestyle expert, spoke to HealthShots about including this magic ingredient in our beauty regime.

“In my opinion, saffron might help you achieve bright skin. All individuals who want a healthy glow on their skin may include this rare spice in their skincare routine. Saffron is rich in crocin, a powerful antioxidant that makes this spice a miracle ingredient for skincare brands too,” says Adhikari.

Before getting to know more about this beauty bomb, here’s how we used saffron in our skin routine and you can too:

  1. Saffron strands in raw milk:

    Saffron strands can be infused in raw milk and used as a natural cleanser for the skin. Dip a cotton ball in saffron milk and cleanse your face with it for an instant brightening effect on your skin.

  2. Saffron and sandalwood

    It can be mixed with sandalwood and rose water to make an all-natural glow-boosting face mask. Crush and mix 4-5 strands of saffron to a spoonful of sandalwood powder. Make a thick paste using rose water. Apply on your face, leave it on for 15 minutes and wash with lukewarm water.

    saffron and skinA saffron and brown sugar-based scrub can exfoliate your skin well. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

  3. Saffron and brown sugar

    Saffron can be mixed with brown sugar and coconut oil to use as a body scrub for brightening the rough skin around the knees and elbows. Rub this mixture in gentle round motions to scrape off dead skin from your skin.

  4. Saffron and rose water

    A few strands of saffron can be soaked in rose water to make an aromatic toner to hydrate and refresh your skin. Mix it together and pour the contents in a spray bottle and spray your face for an energizing effect.

  5. Saffron and almond oil

    Saffron when steeped into pure almond oil can act as a nourishing facial oil that should be used as the last step of your nighttime skincare regime.

    Also Read: Stay warm and fight the flu this winter with the healing prowess of saffron

Now that you know how saffron can be one versatile ingredient, you can include in your various beauty concoctions to cater to your skin needs.

Here are some amazing ways saffron can treat almost all skin troubles:

  1. Treats acne:

    Saffron or kesar is highly rich in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. These qualities make it the ultimate go-to ingredient that can fight acne-causing germs and can calm down your active zits and get rid of the redness and soreness on them. Not just acne, saffron is known to work wonders for blemished skin too.

  2. Gives a peachy glow:

    One of the highly raved about effects of using saffron has to be its glow-boosting properties. A cotton ball soaked in a mixture of saffron and raw milk may clean all the dirt and pollution deposited on your skin and leave you with naturally radiant skin.

    saffron and skinIt can help you deal with pigmentation. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

  3. Heals scars:

    A lesser-known quality of saffron is its capability to heal minor scars and scratches. Saffron can boost your skin cell’s recovery rate. Thus, encouraging the skin to heal faster. The anti-inflammatory properties of saffron may stimulate wound healing by promoting cell multiplication.

  4. Tones you skin:

    With people going gaga about toners in their skincare routines, a saffron toner maybe your skin’s best friend. Saffron infused toner can rejuvenate your skin and get rid of its dull appearance. Include it in your AM and PM skincare routine and you can thank us later!

  5. Protects against UV radiation:

    UV radiation is the worst enemy of our skin. Your skin can undergo oxidative stress when it comes in contact with ultraviolet radiation. This can accelerate ageing, fine lines and wrinkles on your skin. Antioxidants in saffron can act as a barrier against UV rays and may help neutralise free radicals and reduce oxidative stress.

  6. Reduces pigmentation:

    Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition when it starts creating more melanin pigment that is scattered around our skin as a defence mechanism against sun exposure or hormonal changes. The active compounds found in saffron may reduce melanin production. Thus, visibly reducing those dark spots on your face and body.

As valuable as saffron seems, our skin is worthy of anything that gives it tender, love and care. This spice may be a valuable addition to your skincare regime. Try it on and let us know how you feel!


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10 Best Henna Tattoo Kits In 2022 – Expert Review

How we Selected the best henna tattoo kits

Most of the products listed are not selected hand to hand. We used artificial intelligence to make the list. But we can assure you all the products listed here are of superior quality as they are already tested by real users, rated by expert reviewers, and recommended by real humans.

Key decision-making factors you should consider to select the products:


An important factor to consider when purchasing best henna tattoo kits is cost and performance, which typically go hand in hand. With more companies entering the best henna tattoo kits market, options for quality and high-performance become increased. Just because a best henna tattoo kits is the most expensive does not mean it’s the best choice for you and your hard-earned dollar. There are many lower-priced models available with very good performance and comfort.

Brand Value

Choose the best henna tattoo kits from the brand that offers the best value to its customers, with high-quality products and excellent customer service. Good brand products are made with the utmost care and precision, and they’ll always be here to help you answer your query and solve any fault on the products or even refund your money if any damage is found on the products.


Before clicking on the buy now button or adding products to your shopping carts make sure this product meets all the specifications you need.

Product specifications are important when choosing a product. They determine what the product can and cannot do. With so many products on the market, it is important to select the right one for your needs.

Choose the best henna tattoo kits made with only the finest materials, and it’s been precision-engineered to meet your needs. 

When looking at different specifications, there are three main points to consider: performance, features, and price. Each of these factors is important in making your final decision. By considering all of them, you can be sure that you got the best bang for your buck.


The world is full of amazing best henna tattoo kits, and it can be hard to decide which one to purchase. One way to make a decision is by looking at the design. There are many factors that contribute to the overall design of a product, including materials used in manufacturing, color scheme, and even visual weighting. Knowing about these things can help you find a product that suits your taste and needs perfectly.

Customer Ratings

When it comes to making purchase decisions, many people give significant weight to customer ratings. It’s easy to see why- after all, who knows better what a product is like than the people who have actually used it? When you’re trying to decide which product to buy, checking out the customer ratings can be a great way to get an idea of how others have felt about their experience with the product. Of course, you should always take reviews with a grain of salt- not everyone is going to love every product, and some people might be more likely to leave a review than others. But overall, customer ratings are usually a pretty good indicator of how satisfied people are with a particular product. 

Stability and Control

A Drive Celadon‘s stability and control is an important factor in determining how well it performs, and we weighted this metric. 

Consider how much stability or control you want when using the item.

We take into account factors including the impact of this product on our life and how we will feel when using this.


No one wants to deal with discomfort or constraints when enjoying the things they love. Comfort is a critical metric to consider when you’re thinking about using best henna tattoo kits. There are many different types of best henna tattoo kits that provide stability and control while providing a smooth, comfortable function. For example, when you buy a fishing kayak, you want to ensure that you don’t spend your whole trip thinking about how much you want to get out of your boat because your back is aching or your feet are falling asleep.


The way a best henna tattoo kits is designed and manufactured and the material it is made of are key attributes indicating how durable it will be. Choose the best henna tattoo kits that has the ability to withstand wear, pressure, or damage.

Plus, make sure it features a sleek design that’ll look great in any place. So whether you’re a busy mom or a construction worker, you’ll appreciate how sturdy this product is.

What Are the Most Popular best henna tattoo kits Models on the Market Today?

There are a variety of best henna tattoo kits products available on the market today for men & women who are looking for quality and reliability. All best henna tattoo kits models base themselves on the same basic principle. However, they suit different user preferences.

It’s no secret that different products are popular among different demographics. But what if you could see which items were the most popular among all consumers? Well, you can, and we’ve got the list for you. Check out our list to select products that everyone seems to love, regardless of their age, gender, or location.

Some tips to Select the Most Popular best henna tattoo kits

  • The three most important factors to consider when selecting the most popular products are price, quality, and popularity. 
  • Price is one of the more obvious considerations since you want to make sure it is reasonable for your needs.
  • Quality should also be considered because if you buy a product with poor quality then that will not help with your overall goal of finding the best possible product. 
  • Finally, popularity may not seem like an important factor but it can actually be just as crucial as either price or quality considering how many consumers there are in this world looking for great deals on amazing products!


1. What is the price range for best henna tattoo kits?

best henna tattoo kits offer various range prices, depending on their function as well as design. In today’s world, it is hard to know what a product will cost. You typically have no idea how much something costs because the price range can vary so widely. For example, a pair of jeans could be $20-$200 depending on who you buy them from and where you live. The same goes for other products such as best henna tattoo kits. 

2. Are best henna tattoo kits worth the money?

There’s no doubt that we live in a disposable society. We’re constantly being bombarded with advertisements for the newest and most innovative best henna tattoo kits on the market. But are these best henna tattoo kits really worth our hard-earned money? Some of them definitely are if you can choose carefully! But others…not so much.

3. When should I buy a new best henna tattoo kits?

You’re looking for a new best henna tattoo kits that you’ve always wanted. Should you buy it now, or wait? It’s hard to tell what will happen with the price in the future. If there are no signs of slowing down production, then it might be worth buying now so you can enjoy your purchase sooner rather than later. But if production is on the way down and prices are expected to increase, then it might be better off waiting until after all of the hype has died down before making your decision. 

4. Which type of best henna tattoo kits is best?

I’m so sorry if you are confused. It’s not an easy decision to make, I know! But it is one of the most important decisions you’ll ever have to choose between. If you’re still undecided on which type of best henna tattoo kits is right for you, I would say check the features and functions of the best henna tattoo kits we listed here to find the most suitable one for you. Each has its own pros and cons.

  1. Why should I buy a best henna tattoo kits?

You can determine whether you need or want a best henna tattoo kits by identifying whether you have a similar item. It is probably not something you need and you should reconsider buying it. You could use the money from selling the other item you have to buy the new one if you just can’t let it go.

Final Thoughts

best henna tattoo kits is a fun, convenient way to get your job done.

Let’s be honest, we all want to feel that our purchase was a good investment. But there are so many options out there! How do you know which one is the best henna tattoo kits? There’s no need to worry about it because Drive Celadon has your back. Our knowledgeable staff is here to help guide you through each step of the process and find what works for you. You can also take advantage of our free consultations with any questions or concerns before deciding on a final decision. Let us show how easy shopping for something as important as home audio equipment can be when you have an expert at your side every step of the way!


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Top 13 Benefits of Saffron [Scientific Research]


Did you know about the amazing benefits of saffron or kesar – the marvellous bright red colored spice? This spice, indigenous to Kashmir, Iran, Greece, Spain and some other countries of the world is extensively used in various cuisines. Right from Indian biryani and ras malai to Spanish paella to Italian risotto to the Persian saffron rice, saffron adds an exotic taste to all of these dishes.

In India, saffron has been in use for thousands of years now. It isn’t just used in Indian cuisine for its rich taste and vibrant color but also for its impressive health benefits. 

But some might think that it is high in price. But there are three factors that contribute to its price tag – the labor-intensive process behind its harvesting, its rarity, and its wonderful health benefits.

So, saffron isn’t a world-famous spice only for being the costliest spice but for its incredible properties as well. Want to know about saffron benefits? Then, read on, as in this article we share with you why this spice needs to be a part of your spice rack.

Top 13 Benefits of Saffron

Benefits of Saffron are many, but we will stick to only a few that are established by science and accepted by medical professionals. In Ayurveda, Unani Medicine and other traditional forms of treatment, saffron is a very popular substance.

But in this post we stick to the benefits seen through the prism of modern day science.

Saffron Ad

#1. It is a Powerful Antioxidant

Crocen, picrocrocin, crocetin, safranal and kaempferol are some of the antioxidants present in saffron. 

Antioxidants are basically substances that protect your cells from the damage caused by free radicals. If excessive damage is caused by these free radicals, it can lead to various diseases including cancer, Parkinson’s, inflammatory diseases etc. Antioxidants help to prevent these diseases and saffron is full of them. 

That makes this one of the best kesar benefits, doesn’t it?

#2. Relieves the Symptoms of Depression and Elevates Mood

One of the most impressive health benefits of saffron includes that it relieves the symptoms of depression and helps boost your mood. Often, saffron is also referred to as the ‘sunshine spice’. 

Some studies that were conducted found out that saffron supplementation daily worked as effectively as other medicines that were conventionally used for depression. A study even found out that in women who suffered from postpartum depression, saffron supplementation worked better than other conventional medicines.

Saffron is quite effective in relieving the signs and symptoms of anxiety as well. 

So, if you suffer from bouts of anxiety or depression, try to add saffron to your diet to feel better.

#3. Relieves the Symptoms of PMS and Menstrual Cramps

Did you know that saffron could help reduce the signs of PMS as well as menstrual cramps? Yes, that’s true. 

It has been discovered that saffron can help relieve these symptoms significantly. It is because saffron reduces a stress hormone called cortisol, thus reducing the effect of PMS. It is also known to reduce the severity of cramps to a great extent.

#4. Has Cancer Fighting Properties

Another one of the amazing saffron benefits includes that it has cancer fighting properties. Researchers have discovered that saffron contains compounds that can inhibit human malignant cells. 

In test-tube studies too, saffron collectively killed colon cancer cells. Saffron can also be effective for breast, skin, bone marrow, lung as well as prostate cancers.

Saffron’s cancer fighting properties could be due to the presence of an antioxidant named ‘crocin’ in it. 

Dry Fruits Ad

#5. Improves Heart Function

Studies have found out that saffron can also be quite effective in maintaining healthy heart health. 

The substances present in saffron can be effective in lowering cholesterol. The substances present can also prevent the arteries and blood vessels from clogging. 

What’s more, the presence of kaempferol in saffron can be beneficial in increasing your heart’s pumping capacity. 

Researchers have also found that saffron improved conditions of patients who suffered from heart-related diseases.

So, to have a healthy heart, consider including saffron in your diet. 

#6. Is Effective in Improving Vision

Saffron has also proven to be quite effective in patients suffering from AMD or age-related macular degeneration. Studies have shown that daily saffron supplementation of about 20 mg resulted in a significant improvement in their eyesight. 

Saffron is known to be beneficial for improving your vision. This effect is likely because of the presence of crocin. This makes it one of the most impressive health benefits of saffron.

#7. Can be Effective in Reducing Blood Sugar Levels

Did you know that one of the kesar benefits includes having an effect on blood sugar levels as well? The presence of kaempferol in saffron has been linked to the reduction of blood sugar levels.

This has also been shown with the help of test tube studies. These test tube studies revealed that saffron lowered blood sugar levels and increased insulin sensitivity. 

So, if you suffer from type 2 diabetes or are on the verge of it, saffron is definitely worth a try.

#8. Can be Effective in Improving Memory

The many benefits of saffron also includes improving memory. This makes saffron especially amazing for those suffering from Alzheimer’s A study conducted found out that saffron extract improved the cognitive function and reduced dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. 

Saffron extract is also extensively used for treatment of memory loss. The effect on improved memory could be due to the presence of crocin in saffron. 

#9. Is Effective in Reducing Blood Pressure

What’s more, the many health benefits of saffron also include reduction in blood pressure. A study conducted on adults found out that the adults who consumed saffron had significantly reduced their blood pressure over a period of time.

Saffron, when consumed in small amounts could help reduce blood pressure significantly after a certain period of time.

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#10. Can be Helpful in Boosting Immunity

Looking for ways to enhance your immunity? Add a dash of saffron to your recipes, not  just to make them tastier, but also as an aid for a better immune system.

A study conducted on 45 healthy adults revealed that saffron increased their white blood cell count, thus increasing their immune response without any adverse effects. So, saffron can be quite effective in enhancing immunity.

This sounds like one of the best saffron benefits, doesn’t it? Add saffron to your diet for this amazing health benefit.

#11. May Aid in Weight Loss

Yes, you read that right. Saffron can be effective in weight loss. So, if you are trying to lose weight, you might want to add this spice to your diet.

It has been observed that saffron can curb your appetite and hence help reduce unwanted cravings and snacking. Saffron has also been observed to slow down fat absorption and the digestion process. Saffron might also improve glucose and fat utilization for energy. All of these factors can contribute to a significant weight loss.

So, saffron can be quite effective in weight management.

#12. Protects Your Brain

Want to know one more of the top benefits of saffron? It can be quite helpful in protecting your brain. 

We already saw that saffron is extremely rich in antioxidants and this antioxidant activity can reduce the damage caused to the brain. Along with it, saffron also reduces inflammation in the brain. Saffron can also prevent cell death in the brain and helps the cells against progressive damage.

All in all, saffron is quite effective in maintaining your brain health.

#13. Is Good for Your Skin

Did you know that saffron is also quite beneficial for your skin? Yes, that is true! And that is also the reason that saffron is used as the main ingredient in many beauty and cosmetic products around the world.

Studies have also suggested that saffron can be quite effective in protection against the harmful UV rays. This could be because of the presence of kaempferol in it. This is also why saffron is used in many sunscreens. 

Not just for internal use, saffron can also be used externally for better moisturization and a better complexioned skin. It can be used in reducing pigmentation, removing tan, improving complexion as well as for a glowing skin.

How to Eat Saffron for Maximum Benefits?

Now that we know about the amazing benefits of saffron, let us now take a look at how to intake saffron.

Using saffron is very easy. You just need to soak a few strands of saffron in some milk/ water before using them. Only a small amount of these saffron strands is needed.

After soaking them for at least 10 to 15 minutes, you can use saffron for the following

  • In masala milk or turmeric milk
  • For making biryani
  • For making saffron rice and some other rice dishes
  • As an addition to sweets like ras malai, gulab jamun, kulfi, halwa etc.
  • For using it in curries like lamb curry, chicken curry etc.

You can also mix some saffron with the malai from milk/ turmeric powder/ basil leaves etc. to treat certain skin issues.

Over to You

All in all, saffron has some amazing health benefits. But, remember that you only need a very small quantity of saffron as that is enough to give you its benefits. Also to reap the amazing benefits of saffron, it is crucial that the saffron you use is pure and of high quality and not the cheap quality, adulterated saffron.

So, what are you ordering today?

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Mir Saeid

Mir Saeid is the Growth Hacker of Kashmirica, a brand that is poised to ‘Bring Exclusives from Kashmir to You’. An enthusiastic cultural entrepreneur, he is driven by a passion to bring about a social impact. He has a Masters in International Business from the University of Bedfordshire and has worked in leading Marketing positions at various SMEs and Startups for 8+ years.

A polyglot who English, Arabic, Urdu & Koshur, Mir loves traveling, reading, researching, and writing. And that is why he keeps writing about art, culture, life, philosophy, health, and just about everything else he knows.


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