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Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing

MYRTACEAE Corymbia citriodora Australia
Brazil
Bolivia
China
India
Ethiopia
Tanzania
Kenya lemon eucalyptus
lemon scented gum
quwenling citronellal
PMD (by product of
hidrodistillation)
(p-menthane-3,8-diol)
citronellol
limonene
geraniol
isopulegol
δ-pinene 30% PMD applied topically 96.88% protection from mosquitoes for 4 hours field study in Bolivia [35] PMD towelette (0.575g) applied topically 90% protection from An. arabiensis for 6 hours laboratory study [95] 50% PMD applied topically 100% protection from An gambiae and An. funestus for 6-7 hours field study in Tanzania [96] 20% PMD (1.7 mg/cm2) applied topically 100% protection for 11-12 hours against A. stephensi laboratory study [52] 20% PMD applied topically 100% protection against Ae. Aegypti for 120 minutes Laboratory study [42] thermal expulsion (leaves) 78.7 % protection from An. arabiensis
76.8% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] direct burning (leaves) 70.1 % protection from An. arabiensis
72.9% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 74.5% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [50] periodic direct burning (leaves) 51.3% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [50] thermal expulsion (leaves) 48.71% protection from An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [98] Eucalyptus spp. Guinea-Bissau
Ethiopia
Tanzania
Portugal eucalyptus 1,8-cineole
citronellal
Z- and α- citral
α-pinene thermal expulsion (leaves) 72.2% protection from mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [99] E. camaldulensis Ethiopia thermal expulsion (leaves) 71.9 % protection from An. arabiensis
72.2% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] direct burning (leaves) 65.3 % protection from An. arabiensis
66.6% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] Eugenia caryophyllus or Syzygium aromaticum or Eugenia aromaticu India clove
lavang
cravinho-da-india Eugenol
carvacrol
thymol
cinnamaldehyde 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 225 minutes
100% protection against An. albimanus for 213 minutes laboratory study [53] 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min.
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 240 min.
100% protection against An. dirus for 210 min. laboratory study [23] VERBENACEAE Lippia spp. Kenya
Tanzania
Ghana
Zimbabwe lemon bush myrcene
linalool
α-pinene
eucalyptol L. javanica alloparinol
camphor
limonene
α –terpeneol
verbenone 5mg/cm2 plant extract applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 8 hours laboratory study [100] alcohol plant extract applied topically 76.7% protection against An arabiensis for 4 hours laboratory study [101] L. uckambensis fever tea potted plant 33.3% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [102] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 45.9% protection against An. gambiae s.s. semi-field system in Kenya [50] periodic direct burning (leaves) 33.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field system in Kenya [50] potted plant 25.01% protection against An.gambiae s.l field study in Kenya [98] L. cheraliera eucalyptol
caryophyllene
ipsdienone
p-cymene Lantana camara Kenya
Tanzania lantana
spanish flag
West Indian
lantana
Wild sage caryophylene potted plant 32.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [102] potted plant 27.22% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [98] flower extract in coconut oil 94.5% protection against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for one hour laboratory study [103] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 42.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] LAMIACEAE Ocimum spp. O.americanum Kenya
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Nigeria
Ghana
Cameroon
Eritrea
Ethiopia (…) Tree basil
nchu avum
lime basil
kivumbasi
Myeni madongo
African blue basil
hairy basil p-cymene
estragosl
linalool
linoleic acid
eucalyptol
eugenol
camphor
citral
thujone
limonene
ocimene
and others potted plant 39.70% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [102] potted plant 37.91% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [98] fresh plants combined with O. suave bruised and applied topically 50% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Tanzania [104] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 43.1.% protection against An gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 20.9% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] 100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6.5 hours1
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours laboratory study [26] O. suave thermal expulsion (leaves) 73.6 % protection from An. arabiensis
75.1% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] direct burning (leaves) 71.5 % protection from An. arabiensis
79.7% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 53.1% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [50] periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 28.0% protection from An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [50] O. basilicum thermal expulsion (leaves) 78.7 % protection from An. arabiensis
79.2% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] direct burning (leaves) 73.1 % protection from An. arabiensis
70.0% protection from An. pharaoensis field study in Ethiopia [97] 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 70 minutes laboratory study [23] O. kilimandscharikum thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 44.54% protection against An. gambiae s.l. field study in Kenya [98] thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 37.63% protection against An. funestus field study in Kenya [98] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves and seeds) 52.0% protection against An. gambiae s.s. semi-field study in Kenya [50] periodic direct burning (leaves and seeds) 26.4% protection against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] O. forskolei fresh plants hung indoors 53% protection against mosquitoes entering human dwelling field study in Eritrea [105] Hyptis spp. Hyptis suaveolens Kenya
Tanzania
Ghana
The Gambiae bushmint
wild hops
wild spikenard
hangazimu
hortelã-do-campo myrcene smouldering on charcoal 85.4% repellency against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [99] fresh leaves 73.2% repellency against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [99] periodic direct burning (leaves and flowers) 20.8% repellency against An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] Mentha spp. M. piperata Brazil
Bolivia hortelã-do-campo
peppermint 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 45 minutes laboratory study [53] M. arvensis menta
Japanese mint 100% essential oil volatilized in a kerosene lamp 41% protection indoors against Mansonia spp field study in Bolivia [9] Thymus spp. Th. vulgaris China
Former Soviet
Union
Korea
Middle-East
Mediterranean thyme α-terpinene
carvacrol
thymol
p-cymene
linalool
geraniol α-terpinene topically 97.3% protection against Culex pipiens sallens for 82 min laboratory study [106] carvacrol topically 94.7% protection against C. pipiens sallens for 80 min thymol topically 91.8% protection against C. pipiens sallens for 70 min laboratory study [106] linalool topically 91.7% protection agains C. pipiens sallens for 65 min p-cymene 89.0% protection agains C. pipiens sallens for 45.2 min 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against An. albimanus for 105 minutes and Ae. aegypti for 135 minutes laboratory study [53] direct burning (leaves) 85-09% protection for 60-90 min field study [12] Pogostemon spp. China Patchouli 100% essential oil applied 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min laboratory study [23] Pogostemon cablin India
Malaysia
Thailand Oriza topically 100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 150 min
100% protection against An. dirus for 710 minutes POACEAE Cymbopogon spp. China
India
Indonesia C. nardus Brazil citronellal 40% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 7-8 hours against An. stephensi laboratory study [52] 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 100 min
100% protection against An. dirus for 70 minutes laboratory study [23] 10% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 20 minutes laboratory study [42] C. martini Tanzania
Kenya palmarosa geraniol topically
(100% essential oil) 100% protection against An. culicifacies for 12 hours
96.3% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 12 hours field study in India [107] topically
(100% essential oil) 98.8% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 10 hours laboratory study [107] C. citratus USA
South África Bolívia lemongrass oil grass citral α-pinene topically 74% protection against An. darlingi for 2.5h
95% protection against Mansonia spp. for 2.5 hours field study in Bolivia [9] Methanol leaf extract applied topically (2.5mg/m2) 78.8 % protection against An. arabiensis for 12 hours laboratory study [108] 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection for 30 minutes laboratory study [23] C. winterianius 100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6.5 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours laboratory study [26] C. excavatus alcohol plant extract applied topically 66.7% protection against An. arabiensis for 3 hours laboratory study [101] Pelargonium reniforme rose geranium alcohol plant extract applied topically 63.3 protection against An. arabiensis for 3 hours laboratory study [101] MELIACEAE Azadirachta indica India
Sri Lanka
China
Brazil Bolívia
Pakistan
Ethiopia
Guinea Bissau
Kenya
Tanzania (…) Neem azadirachtin
saponins direct burning (leaves) 76.0% protection from mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [99] periodic thermal expulsion (leaves) 24.5% protection from An. gambiae s.s semi-field study in Kenya [50] 1% neem oil volatilized in a kerosene lamp 94.2% protection from Anopheles spp.
80% protection from Culex spp. field study in India [109] 2% neem oil applied topically 56.75% protection from mosquitoes for 4 hours field study in Bolivia [35] ASTERACEAE Tagetes minuta Uganda
Zimbabwe
India Khaki weed topically 86.4% protection againt An. stepehensi for 6 hours laboratory study [110] topically 84.2% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 6 hours laboratory study [110] topically 75% protection against Ae. aegypti for 6 hours laboratory study [110] fresh leaves (4Kg) reduced human landings indoors field study in Uganda [111] Artemisia spp.
A. vulgaris India
Egypt
Italy
Canada
USA mugwort
wormwood
St. Johns plant
Old uncle henry
Sailors tobacco camphor
linalool terpenen-4-ol
α-and β-thujone
β-pinene A. monosperma Siberia Brazil Felon herb
Naughty man myrcene
limonene
cineol 5% leave extract applied topically 100 % protection for 4 hours field study in Egypt 112 CAESALPINIACEAE Daniellia oliveri Guinea-Bissau
The Gambiae churai
santão
santang
santango direct burning (bark) 77.9% protection against mosquitoes for 2 hours field study in Guinea Bissau [99] direct burning (bark) 77% protection against mosquitoes field study in The Gambiae 113 FABACEAE
Glycine max Worldwide Soya 2% soya bean oil 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 95 minutes laboratoty study [42] RUTACEAE
Zanthoxylum limonella Thailand makaen 100% essential oil applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 120 min
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 170 min laboratory study [23] 10% essential oil combined with 10% clove oil 100% protection against An. dirus for 190 minutes laboratory study [52] Citrus hystrix Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Laos Kaffir lime
Limau purut 100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against An. stephensi for 8 hours
100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 3 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 1.5 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 2.5 hours laboratory study [26] ZINGIBERACEAE
Curcuma longa Turmeric
Curcuma
Indian saffron 100% essential oil combined with vanillin 5% applied topically 100% protection against Ae. aegypti for 4.5 hours
100% protection against C. quinquefasciatus for 8 hours
100% protection against An. dirus for 8 hours laboratory study [26]

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